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Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
For someone first starting out as a cryptocurrency investor, finding a trustworthy manual for screening a cryptocurrency’s merits is nonexistent as we are still in the early, Wild West days of the cryptocurrency market. One would need to become deeply familiar with the inner workings of blockchain to be able to perform the bare minimum due diligence.
One might believe, over time, that finding the perfect cryptocurrency may be nothing short of futile. If a cryptocurrency purports infinite scalability, then it is probably either lightweight with limited features or it is highly centralized among a limited number of nodes that perform consensus services especially Proof of Stake or Delegated Proof of Stake. Similarly, a cryptocurrency that purports comprehensive privacy may have technical obstacles to overcome if it aims to expand its applications such as in smart contracts. The bottom line is that it is extremely difficult for a cryptocurrency to have all important features jam-packed into itself.
The cryptocurrency space is stuck in the era of the “dial-up internet” in a manner of speaking. Currently blockchain can’t scale – not without certain tradeoffs – and it hasn’t fully resolved certain intractable issues such as user-unfriendly long addresses and how the blockchain size is forever increasing to name two.
In other words, we haven’t found the ultimate cryptocurrency. That is, we haven’t found the mystical unicorn cryptocurrency that ushers the era of decentralization while eschewing all the limitations of traditional blockchain systems.
“But wait – what about Ethereum once it implements sharding?”
“Wouldn’t IOTA be able to scale infinitely with smart contracts through its Qubic offering?”
“Isn’t Dash capable of having privacy, smart contracts, and instantaneous transactions?”
Those thoughts and comments may come from cryptocurrency investors who have done their research. It is natural for the informed investors to invest in projects that are believed to bring cutting edge technological transformation to blockchain. Sooner or later, the sinking realization will hit that any variation of the current blockchain technology will always likely have certain limitations.
Let us pretend that there indeed exists a unicorn cryptocurrency somewhere that may or may not be here yet. What would it look like, exactly? Let us set the 5 criteria of the unicorn cryptocurrency:
Unicorn Criteria
(1) Perfectly solves the blockchain trilemma:
o Infinite scalability
o Full security
o Full decentralization
(2) Zero or minimal transaction fee
(3) Full privacy
(4) Full smart contract capabilities
(5) Fair distribution and fair governance
For each of the above 5 criteria, there would not be any middle ground. For example, a cryptocurrency with just an in-protocol mixer would not be considered as having full privacy. As another example, an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) may possibly violate criterion (5) since with an ICO the distribution and governance are often heavily favored towards an oligarchy – this in turn would defy the spirit of decentralization that Bitcoin was found on.
There is no cryptocurrency currently that fits the above profile of the unicorn cryptocurrency. Let us examine an arbitrary list of highly hyped cryptocurrencies that meet the above list at least partially. The following list is by no means comprehensive but may be a sufficient sampling of various blockchain implementations:
Bitcoin (BTC)
Bitcoin is the very first and the best known cryptocurrency that started it all. While Bitcoin is generally considered extremely secure, it suffers from mining centralization to a degree. Bitcoin is not anonymous, lacks smart contracts, and most worrisomely, can only do about 7 transactions per seconds (TPS). Bitcoin is not the unicorn notwithstanding all the Bitcoin maximalists.
Ethereum (ETH)
Ethereum is widely considered the gold standard of smart contracts aside from its scalability problem. Sharding as part of Casper’s release is generally considered to be the solution to Ethereum’s scalability problem.
The goal of sharding is to split up validating responsibilities among various groups or shards. Ethereum’s sharding comes down to duplicating the existing blockchain architecture and sharing a token. This does not solve the core issue and simply kicks the can further down the road. After all, full nodes still need to exist one way or another.
Ethereum’s blockchain size problem is also an issue as will be explained more later in this article.
As a result, Ethereum is not the unicorn due to its incomplete approach to scalability and, to a degree, security.
Dash
Dash’s masternodes are widely considered to be centralized due to their high funding requirements, and there are accounts of a pre-mine in the beginning. Dash is not the unicorn due to its questionable decentralization.
Nano
Nano boasts rightfully for its instant, free transactions. But it lacks smart contracts and privacy, and it may be exposed to well orchestrated DDOS attacks. Therefore, it goes without saying that Nano is not the unicorn.
EOS
While EOS claims to execute millions of transactions per seconds, a quick glance reveals centralized parameters with 21 nodes and a questionable governance system. Therefore, EOS fails to achieve the unicorn status.
Monero (XMR)
One of the best known and respected privacy coins, Monero lacks smart contracts and may fall short of infinite scalability due to CryptoNote’s design. The unicorn rank is out of Monero’s reach.
IOTA
IOTA’s scalability is based on the number of transactions the network processes, and so its supposedly infinite scalability would fluctuate and is subject to the whims of the underlying transactions. While IOTA’s scalability approach is innovative and may work in the long term, it should be reminded that the unicorn cryptocurrency has no middle ground. The unicorn cryptocurrency would be expected to scale infinitely on a consistent basis from the beginning.
In addition, IOTA’s Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) feature does not bring privacy to the masses in a highly convenient manner. Consequently, the unicorn is not found with IOTA.

PascalCoin as a Candidate for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
Please allow me to present a candidate for the cryptocurrency unicorn: PascalCoin.
According to the website, PascalCoin claims the following:
“PascalCoin is an instant, zero-fee, infinitely scalable, and decentralized cryptocurrency with advanced privacy and smart contract capabilities. Enabled by the SafeBox technology to become the world’s first blockchain independent of historical operations, PascalCoin possesses unlimited potential.”
The above summary is a mouthful to be sure, but let’s take a deep dive on how PascalCoin innovates with the SafeBox and more. Before we do this, I encourage you to first become acquainted with PascalCoin by watching the following video introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=F25UU-0W9Dk
The rest of this section will be split into 10 parts in order to illustrate most of the notable features of PascalCoin. Naturally, let’s start off with the SafeBox.
Part #1: The SafeBox
Unlike traditional UTXO-based cryptocurrencies in which the blockchain records the specifics of each transaction (address, sender address, amount of funds transferred, etc.), the blockchain in PascalCoin is only used to mutate the SafeBox. The SafeBox is a separate but equivalent cryptographic data structure that snapshots account balances. PascalCoin’s blockchain is comparable to a machine that feeds the most important data – namely, the state of an account – into the SafeBox. Any node can still independently compute and verify the cumulative Proof-of-Work required to construct the SafeBox.
The PascalCoin whitepaper elegantly highlights the unique historical independence that the SafeBox possesses:
“While there are approaches that cryptocurrencies could use such as pruning, warp-sync, "finality checkpoints", UTXO-snapshotting, etc, there is a fundamental difference with PascalCoin. Their new nodes can only prove they are on most-work-chain using the infinite history whereas in PascalCoin, new nodes can prove they are on the most-work chain without the infinite history.”
Some cryptocurrency old-timers might instinctively balk at the idea of full nodes eschewing the entire history for security, but such a reaction would showcase a lack of understanding on what the SafeBox really does.
A concrete example would go a long way to best illustrate what the SafeBox does. Let’s say I input the following operations in my calculator:
5 * 5 – 10 / 2 + 5
It does not take a genius to calculate the answer, 25. Now, the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* would be forever imbued on a traditional blockchain’s history. But the SafeBox begs to differ. It says that the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* should instead be simply “25” so as preserve simplicity, time, and space. In other words, the SafeBox simply preserves the account balance.
But some might still be unsatisfied and claim that if one cannot trace the series of operations (transactions) that lead to the final number (balance) of 25, the blockchain is inherently insecure.
Here are four important security aspects of the SafeBox that some people fail to realize:
(1) SafeBox Follows the Longest Chain of Proof-of-Work
The SafeBox mutates itself per 100 blocks. Each new SafeBox mutation must reference both to the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks in order to be valid, and the resultant hash of the new mutated SafeBox must then be referenced by each of the new subsequent blocks, and the process repeats itself forever.
The fact that each new SafeBox mutation must reference to the previous SafeBox mutation is comparable to relying on the entire history. This is because the previous SafeBox mutation encapsulates the result of cumulative entire history except for the 100 blocks which is why each new SafeBox mutation requires both the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks.
So in a sense, there is a single interconnected chain of inflows and outflows, supported by Byzantine Proof-of-Work consensus, instead of the entire history of transactions.
More concretely, the SafeBox follows the path of the longest chain of Proof-of-Work simply by design, and is thus cryptographically equivalent to the entire history even without tracing specific operations in the past. If the chain is rolled back with a 51% attack, only the attacker’s own account(s) in the SafeBox can be manipulated as is explained in the next part.
(2) A 51% Attack on PascalCoin Functions the Same as Others
A 51% attack on PascalCoin would work in a similar way as with other Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. An attacker cannot modify a transaction in the past without affecting the current SafeBox hash which is accepted by all honest nodes.
Someone might claim that if you roll back all the current blocks plus the 100 blocks prior to the SafeBox’s mutation, one could create a forged SafeBox with different balances for all accounts. This would be incorrect as one would be able to manipulate only his or her own account(s) in the SafeBox with a 51% attack – just as is the case with other UTXO cryptocurrencies. The SafeBox stores the balances of all accounts which are in turn irreversibly linked only to their respective owners’ private keys.
(3) One Could Preserve the Entire History of the PascalCoin Blockchain
No blockchain data in PascalCoin is ever deleted even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox is cryptographically equivalent to a full node with the entire history as explained above, PascalCoin full nodes are not expected to contain infinite history. But for whatever reason(s) one may have, one could still keep all the PascalCoin blockchain history as well along with the SafeBox as an option even though it would be redundant.
Without storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain, you can still trace the specific operations of the 100 blocks prior to when the SafeBox absorbs and reflects the net result (a single balance for each account) from those 100 blocks. But if you’re interested in tracing operations over a longer period in the past – as redundant as that may be – you’d have the option to do so by storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain.
(4) The SafeBox is Equivalent to the Entire Blockchain History
Some skeptics may ask this question: “What if the SafeBox is forever lost? How would you be able to verify your accounts?” Asking this question is tantamount to asking to what would happen to Bitcoin if all of its entire history was erased. The result would be chaos, of course, but the SafeBox is still in line with the general security model of a traditional blockchain with respect to black swans.
Now that we know the security of the SafeBox is not compromised, what are the implications of this new blockchain paradigm? A colorful illustration as follows still wouldn’t do justice to the subtle revolution that the SafeBox ushers. The automobiles we see on the street are the cookie-and-butter representation of traditional blockchain systems. The SafeBox, on the other hand, supercharges those traditional cars to become the Transformers from Michael Bay’s films.
The SafeBox is an entirely different blockchain architecture that is impressive in its simplicity and ingenuity. The SafeBox’s design is only the opening act for PascalCoin’s vast nuclear arsenal. If the above was all that PascalCoin offers, it still wouldn’t come close to achieving the unicorn status but luckily, we have just scratched the surface. Please keep on reading on if you want to learn how PascalCoin is going to shatter the cryptocurrency industry into pieces. Buckle down as this is going to be a long read as we explore further about the SafeBox’s implications.
Part #2: 0-Confirmation Transactions
To begin, 0-confirmation transactions are secure in PascalCoin thanks to the SafeBox.
The following paraphrases an explanation of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmations from the whitepaper:
“Since PascalCoin is not a UTXO-based currency but rather a State-based currency thanks to the SafeBox, the security guarantee of 0-confirmation transactions are much stronger than in UTXO-based currencies. For example, in Bitcoin if a merchant accepts a 0-confirmation transaction for a coffee, the buyer can simply roll that transaction back after receiving the coffee but before the transaction is confirmed in a block. The way the buyer does this is by re-spending those UTXOs to himself in a new transaction (with a higher fee) thus invalidating them for the merchant. In PascalCoin, this is virtually impossible since the buyer's transaction to the merchant is simply a delta-operation to debit/credit a quantity from/to accounts respectively. The buyer is unable to erase or pre-empt this two-sided, debit/credit-based transaction from the network’s pending pool until it either enters a block for confirmation or is discarded with respect to both sender and receiver ends. If the buyer tries to double-spend the coffee funds after receiving the coffee but before they clear, the double-spend transaction will not propagate the network since nodes cannot propagate a double-spending transaction thanks to the debit/credit nature of the transaction. A UTXO-based transaction is initially one-sided before confirmation and therefore is more exposed to one-sided malicious schemes of double spending.”
Phew, that explanation was technical but it had to be done. In summary, PascalCoin possesses the only secure 0-confirmation transactions in the cryptocurrency industry, and it goes without saying that this means PascalCoin is extremely fast. In fact, PascalCoin is capable of 72,000 TPS even prior to any additional extensive optimizations down the road. In other words, PascalCoin is as instant as it gets and gives Nano a run for its money.
Part #3: Zero Fee
Let’s circle back to our discussion of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation capability. Here’s a little fun magical twist to PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation magic: 0-confirmation transactions are zero-fee. As in you don’t pay a single cent in fee for each 0-confirmation! There is just a tiny downside: if you create a second transaction in a 5-minute block window then you’d need to pay a minimal fee. Imagine using Nano but with a significantly stronger anti-DDOS protection for spam! But there shouldn’t be any complaint as this fee would amount to 0.0001 Pascal or $0.00002 based on the current price of a Pascal at the time of this writing.
So, how come the fee for blazingly fast transactions is nonexistent? This is where the magic of the SafeBox arises in three ways:
(1) PascalCoin possesses the secure 0-confirmation feature as discussed above that enables this speed.
(2) There is no fee bidding competition of transaction priority typical in UTXO cryptocurrencies since, once again, PascalCoin operates on secure 0-confirmations.
(3) There is no fee incentive needed to run full nodes on behalf of the network’s security beyond the consensus rewards.
Part #4: Blockchain Size
Let’s expand more on the third point above, using Ethereum as an example. Since Ethereum’s launch in 2015, its full blockchain size is currently around 2 TB, give or take, but let’s just say its blockchain size is 100 GB for now to avoid offending the Ethereum elitists who insist there are different types of full nodes that are lighter. Whoever runs Ethereum’s full nodes would expect storage fees on top of the typical consensus fees as it takes significant resources to shoulder Ethereum’s full blockchain size and in turn secure the network. What if I told you that PascalCoin’s full blockchain size will never exceed few GBs after thousands of years? That is just what the SafeBox enables PascalCoin to do so. It is estimated that by 2072, PascalCoin’s full nodes will only be 6 GB which is low enough not to warrant any fee incentives for hosting full nodes. Remember, the SafeBox is an ultra-light cryptographic data structure that is cryptographically equivalent to a blockchain with the entire transaction history. In other words, the SafeBox is a compact spreadsheet of all account balances that functions as PascalCoin’s full node!
Not only does the SafeBox’s infinitesimal memory size helps to reduce transaction fees by phasing out any storage fees, but it also paves the way for true decentralization. It would be trivial for every PascalCoin user to opt a full node in the form of a wallet. This is extreme decentralization at its finest since the majority of users of other cryptocurrencies ditch full nodes due to their burdensome sizes. It is naïve to believe that storage costs would reduce enough to the point where hosting full nodes are trivial. Take a look at the following chart outlining the trend of storage cost.

* https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-cost-per-gigabyte/
As we can see, storage costs continue to decrease but the descent is slowing down as is the norm with technological improvements. In the meantime, blockchain sizes of other cryptocurrencies are increasing linearly or, in the case of smart contract engines like Ethereum, parabolically. Imagine a cryptocurrency smart contract engine like Ethereum garnering worldwide adoption; how do you think Ethereum’s size would look like in the far future based on the following chart?


https://i.redd.it/k57nimdjmo621.png

Ethereum’s future blockchain size is not looking pretty in terms of sustainable security. Sharding is not a fix for this issue since there still needs to be full nodes but that is a different topic for another time.
It is astonishing that the cryptocurrency community as a whole has passively accepted this forever-expanding-blockchain-size problem as an inescapable fate.
PascalCoin is the only cryptocurrency that has fully escaped the death vortex of forever expanding blockchain size. Its blockchain size wouldn’t exceed 10 GB even after many hundreds of years of worldwide adoption. Ethereum’s blockchain size after hundreds of years of worldwide adoption would make fine comedy.
Part #5: Simple, Short, and Ordinal Addresses
Remember how the SafeBox works by snapshotting all account balances? As it turns out, the account address system is almost as cool as the SafeBox itself.
Imagine yourself in this situation: on a very hot and sunny day, you’re wandering down the street across from your house and ran into a lemonade stand – the old-fashioned kind without any QR code or credit card terminal. The kid across you is selling a lemonade cup for 1 Pascal with a poster outlining the payment address as 5471-55. You flip out your phone and click “Send” with 1 Pascal to the address 5471-55; viola, exactly one second later you’re drinking your lemonade without paying a cent for the transaction fee!
The last thing one wants to do is to figure out how to copy/paste to, say, the following address 1BoatSLRHtKNngkdXEeobR76b53LETtpyT on the spot wouldn’t it? Gone are the obnoxiously long addresses that plague all cryptocurrencies. The days of those unreadable addresses will be long gone – it has to be if blockchain is to innovate itself for the general public. EOS has a similar feature for readable addresses but in a very limited manner in comparison, and nicknames attached to addresses in GUIs don’t count since blockchain-wide compatibility wouldn’t hold.
Not only does PascalCoin has the neat feature of having addresses (called PASAs) that amount to up to 6 or 7 digits, but PascalCoin can also incorporate in-protocol address naming as opposed to GUI address nicknames. Suppose I want to order something from Amazon using Pascal; I simply search the word “Amazon” then the corresponding account number shows up. Pretty neat, right?
The astute reader may gather that PascalCoin’s address system makes it necessary to commoditize addresses, and he/she would be correct. Some view this as a weakness; part #10 later in this segment addresses this incorrect perception.
Part #6: Privacy
As if the above wasn’t enough, here’s another secret that PascalCoin has: it is a full-blown privacy coin. It uses two separate foundations to achieve comprehensive anonymity: in-protocol mixer for transfer amounts and zn-SNARKs for private balances. The former has been implemented and the latter is on the roadmap. Both the 0-confirmation transaction and the negligible transaction fee would make PascalCoin the most scalable privacy coin of any other cryptocurrencies pending the zk-SNARKs implementation.
Part #7: Smart Contracts
Next, PascalCoin will take smart contracts to the next level with a layer-2 overlay consensus system that pioneers sidechains and other smart contract implementations.
In formal terms, this layer-2 architecture will facilitate the transfer of data between PASAs which in turn allows clean enveloping of layer-2 protocols inside layer-1 much in the same way that HTTP lives inside TCP.
To summarize:
· The layer-2 consensus method is separate from the layer-1 Proof-of-Work. This layer-2 consensus method is independent and flexible. A sidechain – based on a single encompassing PASA – could apply Proof-of-Stake (POS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS), or Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) as the consensus system of its choice.
· Such a layer-2 smart contract platform can be written in any languages.
· Layer-2 sidechains will also provide very strong anonymity since funds are all pooled and keys are not used to unlock them.
· This layer-2 architecture is ingenious in which the computation is separate from layer-2 consensus, in effect removing any bottleneck.
· Horizontal scaling exists in this paradigm as there is no interdependence between smart contracts and states are not managed by slow sidechains.
· Speed and scalability are fully independent of PascalCoin.
One would be able to run the entire global financial system on PascalCoin’s infinitely scalable smart contract platform and it would still scale infinitely. In fact, this layer-2 architecture would be exponentially faster than Ethereum even after its sharding is implemented.
All this is the main focus of PascalCoin’s upcoming version 5 in 2019. A whitepaper add-on for this major upgrade will be released in early 2019.
Part #8: RandomHash Algorithm
Surely there must be some tradeoffs to PascalCoin’s impressive capabilities, you might be asking yourself. One might bring up the fact that PascalCoin’s layer-1 is based on Proof-of-Work and is thus susceptible to mining centralization. This would be a fallacy as PascalCoin has pioneered the very first true ASIC, GPU, and dual-mining resistant algorithm known as RandomHash that obliterates anything that is not CPU based and gives all the power back to solo miners.
Here is the official description of RandomHash:
“RandomHash is a high-level cryptographic hash algorithm that combines other well-known hash primitives in a highly serial manner. The distinguishing feature is that calculations for a nonce are dependent on partial calculations of other nonces, selected at random. This allows a serial hasher (CPU) to re-use these partial calculations in subsequent mining saving 50% or more of the work-load. Parallel hashers (GPU) cannot benefit from this optimization since the optimal nonce-set cannot be pre-calculated as it is determined on-the-fly. As a result, parallel hashers (GPU) are required to perform the full workload for every nonce. Also, the algorithm results in 10x memory bloat for a parallel implementation. In addition to its serial nature, it is branch-heavy and recursive making in optimal for CPU-only mining.”
One might be understandably skeptical of any Proof-of-Work algorithm that solves ASIC and GPU centralization once for all because there have been countless proposals being thrown around for various algorithms since the dawn of Bitcoin. Is RandomHash truly the ASIC & GPU killer that it claims to be?
Herman Schoenfeld, the inventor behind RandomHash, described his algorithm in the following:
“RandomHash offers endless ASIC-design breaking surface due to its use of recursion, hash algo selection, memory hardness and random number generation.
For example, changing how round hash selection is made and/or random number generator algo and/or checksum algo and/or their sequencing will totally break an ASIC design. Conceptually if you can significantly change the structure of the output assembly whilst keeping the high-level algorithm as invariant as possible, the ASIC design will necessarily require proportional restructuring. This results from the fact that ASIC designs mirror the ASM of the algorithm rather than the algorithm itself.”
Polyminer1 (pseudonym), one of the members of the PascalCoin core team who developed RHMiner (official software for mining RandomHash), claimed as follows:
“The design of RandomHash is, to my experience, a genuine innovation. I’ve been 30 years in the field. I’ve rarely been surprised by anything. RandomHash was one of my rare surprises. It’s elegant, simple, and achieves resistance in all fronts.”
PascalCoin may have been the first party to achieve the race of what could possibly be described as the “God algorithm” for Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. Look no further than one of Monero’s core developers since 2015, Howard Chu. In September 2018, Howard declared that he has found a solution, called RandomJS, to permanently keep ASICs off the network without repetitive algorithm changes. This solution actually closely mirrors RandomHash’s algorithm. Discussing about his algorithm, Howard asserted that “RandomJS is coming at the problem from a direction that nobody else is.”
Link to Howard Chu’s article on RandomJS:
https://www.coindesk.com/one-musicians-creative-solution-to-drive-asics-off-monero
Yet when Herman was asked about Howard’s approach, he responded:
“Yes, looks like it may work although using Javascript was a bit much. They should’ve just used an assembly subset and generated random ASM programs. In a way, RandomHash does this with its repeated use of random mem-transforms during expansion phase.”
In the end, PascalCoin may have successfully implemented the most revolutionary Proof-of-Work algorithm, one that eclipses Howard’s burgeoning vision, to date that almost nobody knows about. To learn more about RandomHash, refer to the following resources:
RandomHash whitepaper:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/storage/whitepapers/RandomHash_Whitepaper.pdf
Technical proposal for RandomHash:
https://github.com/PascalCoin/PascalCoin/blob/mastePIP/PIP-0009.md
Someone might claim that PascalCoin still suffers from mining centralization after RandomHash, and this is somewhat misleading as will be explained in part #10.
Part #9: Fair Distribution and Governance
Not only does PascalCoin rest on superior technology, but it also has its roots in the correct philosophy of decentralized distribution and governance. There was no ICO or pre-mine, and the developer fund exists as a percentage of mining rewards as voted by the community. This developer fund is 100% governed by a decentralized autonomous organization – currently facilitated by the PascalCoin Foundation – that will eventually be transformed into an autonomous smart contract platform. Not only is the developer fund voted upon by the community, but PascalCoin’s development roadmap is also voted upon the community via the Protocol Improvement Proposals (PIPs).
This decentralized governance also serves an important benefit as a powerful deterrent to unseemly fork wars that befall many cryptocurrencies.
Part #10: Common Misconceptions of PascalCoin
“The branding is terrible”
PascalCoin is currently working very hard on its image and is preparing for several branding and marketing initiatives in the short term. For example, two of the core developers of the PascalCoin recently interviewed with the Fox Business Network. A YouTube replay of this interview will be heavily promoted.
Some people object to the name PascalCoin. First, it’s worth noting that PascalCoin is the name of the project while Pascal is the name of the underlying currency. Secondly, Google and YouTube received excessive criticisms back then in the beginning with their name choices. Look at where those companies are nowadays – surely a somewhat similar situation faces PascalCoin until the name’s familiarity percolates into the public.
“The wallet GUI is terrible”
As the team is run by a small yet extremely dedicated developers, multiple priorities can be challenging to juggle. The lack of funding through an ICO or a pre-mine also makes it challenging to accelerate development. The top priority of the core developers is to continue developing full-time on the groundbreaking technology that PascalCoin offers. In the meantime, an updated and user-friendly wallet GUI has been worked upon for some time and will be released in due time. Rome wasn’t built in one day.
“One would need to purchase a PASA in the first place”
This is a complicated topic since PASAs need to be commoditized by the SafeBox’s design, meaning that PASAs cannot be obtained at no charge to prevent systematic abuse. This raises two seemingly valid concerns:
· As a chicken and egg problem, how would one purchase a PASA using Pascal in the first place if one cannot obtain Pascal without a PASA?
· How would the price of PASAs stay low and affordable in the face of significant demand?
With regards to the chicken and egg problem, there are many ways – some finished and some unfinished – to obtain your first PASA as explained on the “Get Started” page on the PascalCoin website:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/get_started
More importantly, however, is the fact that there are few methods that can get your first PASA for free. The team will also release another method soon in which you could obtain your first PASA for free via a single SMS message. This would probably become by far the simplest and the easiest way to obtain your first PASA for free. There will be more new ways to easily obtain your first PASA for free down the road.
What about ensuring the PASA market at large remains inexpensive and affordable following your first (and probably free) PASA acquisition? This would be achieved in two ways:
· Decentralized governance of the PASA economics per the explanation in the FAQ section on the bottom of the PascalCoin website (https://www.pascalcoin.org/)
· Unlimited and free pseudo-PASAs based on layer-2 in the next version release.
“PascalCoin is still centralized after the release of RandomHash”
Did the implementation of RandomHash from version 4 live up to its promise?
The official goals of RandomHash were as follow:
(1) Implement a GPU & ASIC resistant hash algorithm
(2) Eliminate dual mining
The two goals above were achieved by every possible measure.
Yet a mining pool, Nanopool, was able to regain its hash majority after a significant but a temporary dip.
The official conclusion is that, from a probabilistic viewpoint, solo miners are more profitable than pool miners. However, pool mining is enticing for solo miners who 1) have limited hardware as it ensures a steady income instead of highly profitable but probabilistic income via solo mining, and 2) who prefer convenient software and/or GUI.
What is the next step, then? While the barrier of entry for solo miners has successfully been put down, additional work needs to be done. The PascalCoin team and the community are earnestly investigating additional steps to improve mining decentralization with respect to pool mining specifically to add on top of RandomHash’s successful elimination of GPU, ASIC, and dual-mining dominance.
It is likely that the PascalCoin community will promote the following two initiatives in the near future:
(1) Establish a community-driven, nonprofit mining pool with attractive incentives.
(2) Optimize RHMiner, PascalCoin’s official solo mining software, for performance upgrades.
A single pool dominance is likely short lived once more options emerge for individual CPU miners who want to avoid solo mining for whatever reason(s).
Let us use Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin mining is dominated by ASICs and mining pools but no single pool is – at the time of this writing – even close on obtaining the hash majority. With CPU solo mining being a feasible option in conjunction with ASIC and GPU mining eradication with RandomHash, the future hash rate distribution of PascalCoin would be far more promising than Bitcoin’s hash rate distribution.
PascalCoin is the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
If you’ve read this far, let’s cut straight to the point: PascalCoin IS the unicorn cryptocurrency.
It is worth noting that PascalCoin is still a young cryptocurrency as it was launched at the end of 2016. This means that many features are still work in progress such as zn-SNARKs, smart contracts, and pool decentralization to name few. However, it appears that all of the unicorn criteria are within PascalCoin’s reach once PascalCoin’s technical roadmap is mostly completed.
Based on this expository on PascalCoin’s technology, there is every reason to believe that PascalCoin is the unicorn cryptocurrency. PascalCoin also solves two fundamental blockchain problems beyond the unicorn criteria that were previously considered unsolvable: blockchain size and simple address system. The SafeBox pushes PascalCoin to the forefront of cryptocurrency zeitgeist since it is a superior solution compared to UTXO, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Block Lattice, Tangle, and any other blockchain innovations.


THE UNICORN

Author: Tyler Swob
submitted by Kosass to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Verge Currency Beginner's Guide

Verge Currency Beginner's Guide
A short Background
2008 was the worst financial crisis the world had experience since the great depression. The efforts of banks worldwide were not enough to prevent its occurrence. Shortly after, someone by the name of Satoshi Nakamoto offered an alternative solution. A digital currency that removes the need for a central bank. His proposal written in the Bitcoin white paper, is summarized below:
  • A secure, decentralized network.
  • A system with economic properties.
  • No need for banks or rule makers.
  • Instant transactions without a need of a third party or government approval.
  • Bringing financial services to the unbanked 2.5 billion people.
  • Total financial freedom. No one can freeze your accounts.
  • Low transaction costs. No ridiculously high transaction fees.
  • A currency with finite amount where no one can print money whenever they want.
Bitcoin
In 2009, when Satoshi Nakamoto launched Bitcoin, the network consisted of computers (in crypto terms, these are called Nodes) to approve transactions, movements of data along the chain. This allows for everyone willing to become a participant, creating a decentralized global network. Allowing for a decentralized currency, free of the control of politicians, or institutions.
The rules can only be changed if 51% of the network agrees on it. This way the network is completely democratized and resistant to hacking attacks.
Unlike today’s financial institutions, no one can freeze your account or prevent you sending money. You are the only person who truly holds your wealth.
It is an open source project. Anyone can see the code and offer or discuss changes with the community. On the other hand, anyone participating to the network with computational power gets incentives or pay, with a fractional amount of BTC.
Blockchain
The core of a secure decentralized network like Bitcoin, lies the Blockchain technology. To put it simply, the blockchain is like a series of Lego, connected to each other by linking information, called transactions. These transactions contain the following data sender, receiver and the unique signature of the sender.
The data will be converted into “hash” before being saved into a block. The bitcoin hash is generated using a set of cryptographic functions called sha256. This way the information is encrypted, is compressed and saved in the block.
Additionally, each block in the chain, contains the information from the block before it. This ensures that if someone tries to maliciously modify information in a block, all the block following this attempt will be changed, making it easier to spot.
Each block includes the information from the previous block. If someone wants to maliciously change the information in one block that change the complete result of all following blocks.
In this type of network there is only one blockchain, and all the information is kept in a public ledger which is shared amongst all the participating networks. For the blockchain to be valid, more than 50% of the participants (nodes and their computational power) must agree with it.
Bitcoin Today (2018)
Until today many, many, events have happened. The network has grown massively. The underlying code is improved in many ways. There are more and more developers and investors that have entered the cryptocurrency space.
Currently there are proposed changes being developed to the Bitcoin network that will make bitcoin rival the centralized networks of today (Visa, Mastercard), while significantly lowering the cost of these transaction.
Many alternative cryptocurrencies have been created along the way, improving some of the aspects of the bitcoin and focusing on certain applications, in the crypto-space, we call them altcoins.
WHY VERGE
The way that Bitcoin function, has severe flaws with regards to privacy:
  • Public Ledger: The transaction information is public, meaning, that transactions can be linked to a person.
  • IP Leakage: A persistent and motivated attacker will be able to associate your IP address with your bitcoin transaction.
Due to the above reasons, it was clear that there would be a need for a privacy coin. Different coins were then created that had this problem in mind. They were ‘too private’ in the sense that they completely by-passed the public ledger. The public ledger allows merchant to provide proof of transactions, which is important for bookkeeping.
Enter Verge Currency, formerly Dogecoindark; which offers transaction on the ledger, both public and private. Allowing the user to choose if the transactions are public or private.
VERGE CURRENCY
2014 saw the birth of Dogecoin Dark; in 2016, it was rebranded to Verge Currency.
Verge improves upon the original Bitcoin blockchain and aims to fulfill its initial purpose of providing individuals and businesses with a fast, efficient and decentralized way of making direct transactions while maintaining your privacy.
What is the Verge Currency Mission?
Verge Currency aims to empower people around the globe using blockchain in everyday life and makes it possible for people to engage in transactions quickly, efficiently and privately. With Verge, business and individuals now have flexible options for sending and receiving payments.
Verge Currency also offer helpful integrations and tools that enable them to handle large scale transactions between merchants and small-scale private payments.
Is Verge Currency a private company and how is it funded?
Following in the spirit of Bitcoin, Verge is an open-source software, and a community. It is not a company, never had an ICO. The development is entirely funded by the community and the developers. Currently Verge is looking into setting up an official Verge merchandise store, and an Official Verge mining pool, for multiple algorithms.
Tech
General technical capabilities of XVG blockchain:
Protocol PoW (Proof of Work)
Algorithms Scrypt, X17, Lyra2rev2, myr-groestl and blake2s
Max Coin Supply 16.5 billion XVG
Circulation Supply 15.2 billion XVG
Minable yes
Atomic Swaps Enabled
Tx (Transaction) Speed 5-10 Seconds
Tps (Transactions per sec.) 100 (Will be ~2000 with RSK)
Tx Fee 0.1 XVG
Privacy Options:
Tor + I2P Networks fully obfuscated IP address / User's Location is hidden
Stealth Addresses It enables users to anonymously receive funds to their wallet. Therefore third parties are no longer able to track receivers addresses, nor are they able to combine official wallet addresses with their stealth addresses.
RING CT Under development
See our blackpaper V5.0 for detailed information.
Development Updates
Marketing Updates

Wallets
Mining

Community
Verge is a community-driven project. The community is the pillar of Verge, from the past to the future, the community built Verge. The community or Vergefam connects everyone from around the world, regardless of cultural background. The common vision is to provide everyone access to financial freedom, and the choice of privacy while transacting.
Below you can find the Verge Telegram communities from around the world;
Official Telegram
🇧🇷 🇵🇹 Brasil/Portugal/
🇨🇦 Canada
🇳🇴 🇸🇪 🇩🇰 Norway/Sweden/Denmark
🇩🇪 🇦🇹 🇨🇭 🇱🇮 Germany/Austria/Switzerland/Liechtenstein
🇵🇹 Portugal
🇪🇸 Spain
🇱🇺 Netherlands
🇹🇷 Turkey
🇫🇷 France
Balkan
🇵🇾 Croatia
🇦🇱 🇽🇰 Albania/Kosovo
🇷🇴 Romania
🇭🇺 Hungary
🇷🇺 Russia
🇮🇳 India
🇲🇾 Malaysia
🇯🇵 Japan
🇰🇷 Korea
🇨🇳 China
🇿🇦 South Africa
🔌Wallet Support
🖥️ Mining support
Mass Adoption
Low fees, quick transactions, high volume in circulation, multiplatform support, Wraith protocol are the ingredients that make Verge perfectly positioned for mass adoption. Transact on the public ledger for everyday purchases or stay private if you wish so.
Getting Started
You can find the matching instructions as below:
See the following useful links:

Official Links
Vergecurrency.com
Verge Team
Roadmap
FAQ
Github
Block Explorer 1
Block Explorer 2
Network Status
Telegram
Twitter
Facebook
Discord
Youtube
Medium
Investfeed
Verge Zendesk
VergeFora
Last Edit: Latest development update links are added to the Tech section.
submitted by Desolatorbtc to vergecurrency [link] [comments]

Useful Beginner's Guide to Syscoin

What is Syscoin?

Some have described Syscoin (SYS) as the Shopify, Amazon and Ebay of the blockchain world. Syscoin is a revolutionary cryptocurrency that offers near zero cost financial transactions, incredible speed and provides businesses the infrastructure to trade goods, assets, digital certificates and data securely. Syscoin isn’t just about money and trading, it has the ability to attract various business types thanks to its native set of features geared towards business on the blockchain. From eBay traders and High Street shops to Medical applications, Insurance and Gaming, Syscoin’s decentralized network benefits everyone!   Syscoin is developed by Blockchain Foundry (BF). BF provides blockchain technology based services, projects and products for a wide variety of use cases with the stated aim of disrupting markets by leveraging the potential of blockchain technology. Syscoin is mainly known to be the first cryptocurrency to offer a fully decentralized marketplace based on blockchain. What is lesser known is that this is only a part of what Syscoin offers.   With the introduction of Masternodes in February or March 2018 SYS will be transformed from just a ’marketplace coin’ to a completely ‘utilitarian coin’. The Masternode infrastructure allows the addition of decentralized databases and file storage, increased transaction speed to surpass POS/Visa/Mastercard capabilities, true Turing complete smart contract capabilities for unlimited business logic, sidechains, application layers and an identity layer. This will all be accessible through an API, rather than a new language, enabling nearly any developer to create any blockchain application they can conceive. This will usher in the next generation of blockchain applications - made for new or existing businesses - by conveniently offering everything available from the blockchain space today. In simple terms think Dash + Ethereum/Lisk + Monero + Nano + Storj + Particl capabilities all in one coin!    

SYS Origin

The blockchain as conceptualized by Satoshi Nakamoto back in 2008 envisioned a peer-to-peer electronic cash network that would prevent double-spending. A year later, the blockchain became an integral part of bitcoin, serving as the latter's public ledger of transactions. Although Nakamoto's reference client mentioned a decentralized marketplace service, the subsequent implementation did not incorporate this due to a lack of resources.   Syscoin was initially described in a 2014 draft whitepaper that envisioned Decentralized Marketplace Creation, Decentralized Smart Contracts and Documents, Decentralized Certificate Issuance and Transfer, and Decentralized Data Storage and Retrieval, as among the services that it would offer upon its release.   Syscoin aimed to bring Nakamoto's vision of a decentralized marketplace back into the blockchain, among the other commercial-grade services it aims to deliver to clients. Other services that Syscoin plans to provide include secure data storage and transfer, and unique user aliases that link their owners to the services controlled by the alias.   The early Syscoin wallet was superseded by the release of Blockmarket Desktop 1.0 on September 12, 2017, marking the culmination of Syscoin's vision of a fully decentralized marketplace with a desktop GUI based on the blockchain.   The planned release of Blockmarket Web, a fully web-based version, and Blockmarket Professional in 2018 takes that vision one step further, as more advanced seller stores become a reality.    

The Team

The Team that NEVER quits! Before the launch of Syscoin (Q3 2014), there was a presale ICO by Moolah (as a partner), which turned out to be detrimental for Syscoin. The project raised around 1,000BTC for development but the Syscoin Team only managed to access 250BTC which were used for price support. Moolah (Ryan Kennedy) absconded with the bulk of the ICO funds and the Syscoin team were left with ~30million Syscoin at a price around 400 satoshi. Even after this tragic event, the devs didn’t quit and continued to work on the project without stopping. The case against Moolah is still on-going. See the article from CoinDesk here: http://www.coindesk.com/uk-court-syscoin-injunction-moolah-750-btc/.   What is this detail telling us about the dev team? While some crypto projects are just scams and bring little to no innovation, they’ve proven that they are in it for the long term - ably demonstrated by the fact that they continued to work despite their funds being stolen. And now that hard work is beginning to pay off with the entire team going full-time for the first time in January 2018 and new developers being hired following VC funding for BF.
View Team Page.    

Blockchain Foundry Products

BF Products    

What is Blockmarket Desktop?

Building on the World's First Decentralized Marketplace, Blockmarket is the newest generation of Syscoin's Desktop wallet with a complete, state-of-the-art marketplace built-in where you can securely and reliably buy and sell any items you wish. Entire stores can be created directly through the marketplace where you can sell your own products or re-sell others’ products for commission. Use of blockchain technology eliminates middlemen, credit card fees, maintenance fees, downtime and political interference. Persons are literally able to buy or sell anything to anyone, anytime, anywhere on Earth! Blockmarket Desktop was launched on September 12, 2017. Download Blockmarket Desktop 1.2    

Key Blockmarket Features

- Decentralized Marketplace

The marketplace platform provides a decentralized and high redundant channel for selling goods and services. Features include: • Price Pegging to currencies such as USD, EUR, GBP, CAD, CNY and BTC • Bitcoin and Zcash as payment options • Arbitrated Escrow • Encrypted Messaging • KYC/AML Compliance • Images • Unlimited Inventory Items  

- Name Aliases

Wallet addresses for cryptocurrencies generally consist of a unique string of between 27-34 alphanumeric characters. Such an address isn’t easy to memorize. Although the addresses can be added to an address book within the wallet, Syscoin has taken the user's convenience one step further, allowing you to create a unique Alias for your wallet address, such as a name, title, or characters specific to a username. These can be used to send SYS from home, to a mobile wallet, to work, to friends, to common suppliers or to repeat customers easily, without requiring any memorizing, writing it down, copy & pasting or emailing yourself the address.  

- Digital Certificates

Using the cryptography of the blockchain persons can issue, authorize, and exchange digital certificates of any kind. With Syscoin anyone can issue provably-unique certificates with text or ASCII content to one or multiple parties on the Syscoin blockchain. These certificates can be authenticated by anyone via Syscoin’s cryptographic proof of work. This allows for the creation and free exchange of any kind of digital asset such as ownership certificates, warranties, receipts, tickets, certifications, diplomas, software licenses and more.  

- Integrated Exchanges

Integrated Crypto exchanges - Flypme and Changelly will facilitate exchanging 30+ cryptos for SYS, directly within the Blockmarket wallet.  

- Security Audit Verified

Blockmarket was successfully and independently security audited by Digital Boundary Group and was deemed low risk. View Audit Results.    

Blockmarket Desktop – Quickstart Tutorials (16 short vids)

BM Desktop – Quickstart Tutorials    

Blockmarket Web – (The Key to Mass Adoption)

BM web will bring SYS’s existing decentralized marketplace and all its features into a web-based version, enabling ease of use with a simple email and password login (grandma friendly) without any need for downloading a wallet or waiting for sync. Blockmarket web will be launched in Q1 2018.   This launch will be accompanied by a marketing campaign roll-out that seeks to build brand recognition with audiences within the existing crypto ecosystem and more significantly with the broader, global, non-crypto audience. For this reason Ballistic Arts, a full-service marketing agency was retained by BF. BF Engages Marketing Agency    

Primary Target Market + Value Potential

The primary target market for BF’s Syscoin/Blockmarket web flagship is the retail e-commerce industry. This sets up their decentralized marketplace to rival such commercial giants as Amazon ($648B market cap), Alibaba ($453B market cap) and eBay ($43B market cap). According to eMarketer’s Worldwide Retail and Ecommerce Sales report, global retail e-commerce sales for 2017 were $2.3 Trillion. This is expected to reach an estimated $4 Trillion by 2020 reflecting the rapid growth within this sector.   To perform a very simple assessment of the Syscoin/Blockmarket web’s potential let’s assume that a 1% portion of the forecasted $4 trillion market is captured, which represents $40 billion in revenue. Assuming a sales to market cap ratio of 1:1 for simplicity, the circulating supply of 531 million SYS, with a $40 billion market cap yields a price of roughly $75 per coin. However, with masternodes that limit the circulating supply and token utility that extends beyond retail e-commerce, the SYS price could likely reach much higher. Please note that these are just very simple assumptions and projections for this exercise, however the real world driven potential that this project has is clearly evident.    

Key Syscoin Developments

- Z-DAG: Zero Confirmation Transactions with Double Spend Protection (WORLD’S FIRST)

View Developer’s Twitter post View Syscoin’s Twitter post  

- Masternodes

Ability for world-class transactions-per-second performance to scale-out with added nodes (theoretically 100k TPS per 1000 Masternodes, 300k TPS/3k masternodes, etc). In later releases, masternodes will also process smart contracts and facilitate sharded+encrypted offchain file-storage (with onchain anchors), among other touted functionality. They should also result in steadying the price movements - less volatility as holding will be incentivized.  

- Masternode Rewards + Min. Hardware Specs

Masternode Rewards + Min. Hardware Specs Masternode ROI Calculator  

- Smart Contracts

Scalable Ethereum Virtual Machine: Allows Turin complete smart contracts to be executed following the ethereum protocol at a much faster speed and at a fraction of the ethereum gas price.  

- Assets & Token Issuance

With its token issuance service, Syscoin allows anyone to create a custom asset token which can then be sent directly to anyone else on the network. This facilitates a variety of use cases including ICO token issuance, supply chain management, reward points, and loyalty programs.  

- Anonymous Transactions

Anonymous transactions: via mixing/shuffling at user-specified denomination. Afterwards, additional tech will be added in the near future which will further compound the degree of anonymity provided -Add ValueShuffle running on top of the masternode layer and you have the world's most advanced privacy tech in any coin. This brings true money fungibility to Syscoin and the missing link for true economic sovereignty. View Developer’s Twitter post.  

- Instant Send

Transactions can be sent and received instantly. This represents a similar sending capability as Dash, but is a step beyond- A type of backend node locking will allow an instantly received sum to be sent immediately, without delay, and without network risk of double-spend.    

Why Invest in Syscoin?

 

Merchants

Merchant Pilot Program    

Partnerships

Development Updates

White Paper

White Paper.pdf Note: It is anticipated that the whitepaper will be updated by the team in the near future due to recent developments    

Roadmap

Roadmap 2017-2018.png    

Blockchain Application Development Architecture

Blockchain Application Development Architecture.png    

Feature List 2017 & 2018

Feature List 2017 & 2018.jpg    

Where to Buy

BittrexPoloniexUpbitTux ExchangeLivecoinYobitAEXBittyliciousChangellyFlyp.me    

Wallets

• Block Market Wallet 1.2 – Windows and Mac. Download from https://syscoin.org/ • QT Wallet for Developers: Download from https://github.com/syscoin/syscoin2/releases/tag/2.1.6Coinomi – Syscoin MultiCoin Wallet (only supports send/receive)HolyTransaction – Syscoin Multicoin Web Wallet (desktop & android)    

Need Help or Want to Contribute?

If you need help for an important wallet issue or if you want to know how you can contribute in promoting Syscoin Join the Slack channel where the SYS team and community members are active, helpful and responsive.    

Credit To

Other Sources

https://syscoin.org/ https://twitter.com/syscoin https://www.blockchainfoundry.co/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syscoin    

Last Updated

This post was last updated on Feb 10 2018.    

Disclaimer

This post was created particularly to aid those who are new to Syscoin. Please note that the content provided within this post is for information purposes only and is not to be construed as investment advice.
submitted by idbrews to SysCoin [link] [comments]

The difference between GPU and CPU mining

The difference between GPU and CPU mining


GPU Mining
  • Coins Mined with CPU: Ethereum, Monero, Bitcoin Gold, Zcash, Electroneum, and many others
GPU (or Graphics Processing Unit) is the chip on your graphics card that does repetitive calculations for processing graphics and was initially used mainly by gamers for better graphics. But once Ethereum came along people started buying them up, the price skyrocketed and now there is a certain shortage of gaming graphics cards on the market.
Ethereum Mining with GPUs
All Ethereum based coins use the Ethash algorithm for mining, an algorithm “designed to be ASIC-resistant via memory-hardness.” There might be several reasons behind this, one of them being the possibility of Ethereum switching from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake.
And since ASIC mining is off-limits for Ethereum, using a GPU is a good alternative.
CPU Mining
  • Coins Mined with CPU: Monero, Electroneum, and Bytecoin
The CPU is the Central Processing Unit of any computer. Basically, it is the brains of the computer.
When Bitcoin was first released, you could mine 100 coins a day using just your CPU, which is impossible today.
CPU design optimizes for quickly switching between different tasks. If a coin allows CPU mining, there’s less power in the hands of large mining farms because everyone who has a computer can easily start mining.
The hashing required for Proof of Work is a repetitive mathematical calculation. CPUs have fewer arithmetic logic units, circuits that perform arithmetic operations, and thus are relatively slow when it comes to performing large amounts of calculations.
The Main Difference
GPU mining is the more powerful and lucrative version of CPU mining and yields a better return on investment. GPUs offer a higher level of processing power which in some cases are up to 800 times more than that of a CPU.
#mining #blockchain #ethereum #fintech #bitcoin #MiningOS #COS#CoinFly #CoinflyCOS #GPUmining #Software
submitted by coinfly to CoinFly [link] [comments]

Technical discussion of Gavin's O(1) block propagation proposal

I think there isn't wide appreciation of how important Gavin's proposal is for the scalability of Bitcoin. It's the real deal, and will get us out of this sort of beta mode we've been in of a few transactions per second globally. I spent a few hours reviewing the papers referenced at the bottom of his excellent write-up and think I get it now.
If you already get it, then hang around and answer questions from me and others. If you don't get it yet, start by very carefully reading https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/e20c3b5a1d4b97f79ac2.
The big idea is twofold: fix the miner's incentives to align better with users wanting transactions to clear, and eliminate the sending of redundant data in the newblock message when a block is solved to save bandwidth.
I'll use (arbitrarily) a goal of 1 million tx per block, which is just over 1000 TPS. This seems pretty achievable, without a lot of uncertainty. Really! Read on.
Today, a miner really wants to propagate a solved block as soon as possible to not jeopardize their 25 BTC reward. It's not the cpu cost for handling the transactions on the miner's side that's the problem, it's the sending of a larger newblock message around the network that just might cause her block to lose a race condition with another solution to the block.
So aside from transactions with fees of more than 0.0008 BTC that can make up for this penalty (https://gist.github.com/gavinandresen/5044482), or simply the goodwill of benevolent pools to process transactions, there is today an incentive for miners not to include transactions in a block. The problem is BTC price has grown so high so fast that 0.0008 BTC is about 50 cents, which is high for day-to-day transactions (and very high for third world transactions).
The whole idea centers around an old observation that since the network nodes (including miners) have already received transactions by the normal second-by-second operation of the p2p network, the newblock announcement message shouldn't have to repeat the transaction details. Instead, it can just tell people, hey, I approve these particular transactions called XYZ, and you can check me by taking your copy of those same transactions that you already have and running the hash to check that my header is correctly solved. Proof of work.
A basic way to do this would be to send around a Bloom filter in the newblock message. A receiving node would check all the messages they have, see which of them are in this solved block, and mark them out of their temporary memory pool. Using a BF calculator you can see that you need about 2MB in order to get an error rate of 10e-6 for 1 million entries. 2MB gives 16 million bits which is enough to almost always be able to tell if a tx that you know about is in the block or not.
There are two problems with this: there may be transactions in the solved block that you don't have, for whatever p2p network or policy reason. The BF can't tell you what those are. It can just tell you there were e.g. 1,000,000 tx in this solved block and you were able to find only 999,999 of them. The other glitch is that of those 999,999 it told you were there, a couple could be false positives. I think there are ways you could try to deal with this--send more types of request messages around the network to fill in your holes--but I'll dismiss this and flip back to Gavin's IBLT instead.
The IBLT works super well to mash a huge number of transactions together into one fixed-size (O(1)) data structure, to compare against another set of transactions that is really close, with just a few differences. The "few differences" part compared to the size of the IBLT is critical to this whole thing working. With too many differences, the decode just fails and the receiver wouldn't be able to understand this solved block.
Gavin suggests key size of 8B and data of 8B chunks. I don't understand his data size--there's a big key checksum you need in order to do full add and subtract of IBLTs (let's say 8B, although this might have to be 16B?) that I would rather amortize over more granular data chunks. The average tx is 250B anyway. So I'm going to discuss an 8B key and 64B data chunks. With a count field, this then gives 8 key + 64 data + 16 checksum + 4 count = 92B. Let's round to 100B per IBLT cell.
Let's say we want to fix our newblock message size to around 1MB, in order to not be too alarming for the change to this scheme from our existing 1MB block limit (that miners don't often fill anyway). This means we can have an IBLT with m=10K, or 10,000 cells, which with the 1.5d rule (see the papers) means we can tolerate about 6000 differences in cells, which because we are slicing transactions into multiple cells (4 on average), means we can handle about 1500 differences in transactions at the receiver vs the solver and have faith that we can decode the newblock message fully almost all the time (has to be some way to handle the occasional node that fails this and has to catch up).
So now the problem becomes, how can we define some conventions so that the different nodes can mostly agree on which of the transactions flying around the network for the past N (~10) minutes should be included in the solved block. If the solver gets it wrong, her block doesn't get accepted by the rest of the network. Strong incentive! If the receiver gets it wrong (although she can try multiple times with different sets), she can't track the rest of the network's progress.
This is the genius part around this proposal. If we define the convention so that the set of transactions to be included in a block is essentially all of them, then the miners are strongly incentivized, not just by tx fees, but by the block reward itself to include all those transactions that happened since the last block. It still allows them to make their own decisions, up to 1500 tx could be added where convention would say not to, or not put in where convention says to. This preserves the notion of tx-approval freedom in the network for miners, and some later miner will probably pick up those straggler tx.
I think it might be important to provide as many guidelines for the solver as possible to describe what is in her block, in specific terms as possible without actually having to give tx ids, so that the receivers in their attempt to decode this block can build up as similar an IBLT on their side using the same rules. Something like the tx fee range, some framing of what tx are in the early part and what tx are near the end (time range I mean). Side note: I guess if you allow a tx fee range in this set of parameters, then the solver could put it real high and send an empty block after all, which works against the incentive I mentioned above, so maybe that particular specification is not beneficial.
From http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/49318d3f56c1d525aabf7fda78b23fc0/P2P2013_041.pdf for example, the propagation delay is about 30-40 seconds before almost all nodes have received any particular transaction, so it may be useful for the solver to include tx only up to a certain point in time, like 30 seconds ago. Any tx that is younger than this just waits until the next block, so it's not a big penalty. But some policy like this (and some way to communicate it in the absence of centralized time management among the nodes) will be important to keep the number of differences in the two sets small, below 1500 in my example. The receiver of the newblock message would know when trying to decode it, that they should build up an IBLT on their side also with tx only from up to 30 seconds ago.
I don't understand Gavin's requirement for canonical ordering. I see that it doesn't hurt, but I don't see the requirement for it. Can somebody elaborate? It seems that's his way to achieve the same framing that I am talking about in the previous paragraph, to obtain a minimum number of differences in the two sets. There is no need to clip the total number of tx in a block that I see, since you can keep shoving into the IBLT as much as you want, as long as the number of differences is bounded. So I don't see a canonical ordering being required for clipping the tx set. The XOR (or add-subtract) behavior of the IBLT doesn't require any ordering in the sets that I see, it's totally commutative. Maybe it's his way of allowing miners some control over what tx they approve, how many tx into this canonical order they want to get. But that would also allow them to send around solved empty blocks.
What is pretty neat about this from a consumer perspective is the tx fees could be driven real low, like down to the network propagation minimum which I think as of this spring per Mike Hearn is now 0.00001 BTC or 10 "bits" (1000 satoshis), half a US cent. Maybe that's a problem--the miners get the shaft without being able to bid on which transactions they approve. If they try to not approve too many tx their block won't be decoded by the rest of the network like all the non-mining nodes running the bitpay/coinbases of the world.
Edit: 10 bits is 1000 satoshis, not 10k satoshis
submitted by sandball to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

An in depth look into Sparkster and why I believe it is in a league of its own

Introduction
Today I am writing about a project I truly believe in. I am on the same page with Ian Balina when I state that I see this project is an all-star ICO. This is not your average run-of-the-mill vapour ware ICO with No MVP. This is a working platform with a great team behind it. You can find AMA’s on YouTube(Link 1)with live demonstrations of their TPS progress to date and you can also try out their platform for yourself on their website, these are linked at the end of the article for your convenience. Also, they have a pretty good bounty programme running at the moment which I shall link also(Link 2).
Please don’t consider this investment advice, I hope you will read this article and consider it a starting point for your own research. At the time of writing the market has taken another nasty dip, however this is the time when smart investments need to be made, And I truly fell this is one of them. I would also like any of you who enjoy this article to please upvote it and check out my previous work and stay tuned for more.
I will be diving deep into this whitepaper (Link 3) today and basing my article off videos and my personal experience on their platform. All this information can be found within their website and whitepaper. As such I imagine this is going to be a long article.
So, to begin Sparkster is essentially a decentralised cloud platform that will allow anybody to build software in plain English via simple drag and drop function. In their whitepaper they confess that this was inspired by MIT scratch. In today’s world programmers work in various kinds of code languages, these all require training in different types of languages. For example solidity is one of the most popular used today which “is a contract-oriented programming language for writing smart contracts” (Wikipedia, 2018). This is currently used on many blockchain platforms, it was developed by Ethereum’s project solidity team for use on the Ethereum virtual machine and is the most popular language used at present.
Sparkster aims to provide a platform which will allow smart contracts to run at 10 million TPS per second, which would make it the fastest decentralised cloud software in the world.
Concept development
In their whitepaper they suggest this project was conceived after spending 14 years working with software engineers designing and building ERP software for a start-up. Sparkster was born from the frustration of this process and after 6 years of R&D they have the working product we see today. This is an enterprise ready platform. They also claim they have already signed deals with large tech companies (ARM & Libelium).
They also talk about how the entry is trying to make things more practical but it is not far enough. Sparkster are the market leaders here as they are targeting an audience of 99% non-software developers and allowing them to build software. Interestingly in 2018 at the mobile world congress they presented the use of this platform using AI facial recognition to detect a cleaner in a house and opening a door lock, I seen this on YouTube video, which I will link below(Link 4). This is a team which have proved they have a working product.
Claims/ Vision
  1. In their whitepaper they claim they want to become the world’s first platform where people can build their own visions into reality and create financial independence for themselves and contribute to society.
  2. Sparkster will tear apart the barrier to entry to software creation. Their drag and drop functionality on the platform allows this. Up until yesterday I had no clue how a smart contract worked at the basic level, now I consider myself an expert software developer- Who would have thought I could throw away my old life and upskill over 24 hours? Ha.
  3. What I also love about this project is that it will empower people to bring their own ideas to the table and be able to sell them, thus creating financial independence.
  4. The Sparkster, (2018) website(Link 5)suggests they will further disrupt the 200 billion cloud computing industry and combat the extortionate prices large centralised cloud provides like AWS, Microsoft, Google and IBM charge.
  5. This is a finished product guys, please try it yourself if you don’t believe me.
Problem today
As per Sparkster, (2018) claim the biggest problem faced today is that organisations and individuals who wish to implement AI, IOT and smart contract technology have limitations placed on them. Most notably being that their own IT departments are adapting too slowly and there is a serious lack of experienced personnel in these areas. When I watched the AMA that Sajjad Daya (CEO) did with IAN Balina, he described that it is hard to interpret what you want to a developer and get the result you require; the end result then often does not meet your expectations. This of course leads to time wasting as it requires much back and forth correspondence. He stated that this can be months down the line (Something I have experienced in my own organisation). This traditional “software development lifecycle” is truly a slow and painful process, just as they claim in their whitepaper. Also, when changes need to be made to the software down the line it is very expensive.
Further-more the team claim that most business software used today (SAP, Oracle, Microsoft etc… is in-capable of interfacing with the technologies of the future (IOT, AI, Smart contracts). The Sparkster whitepaper further goes on to suggest that the talent is just not there in the industry today to face this challenge either and much up-skilling is required. The team believe that the high capital cost and time periods to replicate vision onto software in the traditional manner is the biggest problem facing enterprises today as it curbs innovation. I concur with this sentiment.
How they will achieve/solve this
According to their whitepaper, this platform is the solution to all of the above problems. It is a Platform which targets the new era of AI, IOT and smart contracts and all tailored to non-developesoftware experts “making is accessible to the 99% who do not know how to code and don’t want to learn” (Sparkster, 2018).
They will create this platform by targeting users of cell phones, notebooks, laptops and other personal devices- who in essence will all become miners on the network. This will then in turn provide users with Spark tokens as a reward for contributing spare capacity. Using these devices is far cheaper than todays centralised systems according to the team. They further proclaim in their whitepaper this lower cost will arise from using inexpensive nodes and as this scales the cost goes down; compared to traditional cloud computing which remains constant. Companies will provide the value via paying for the software creation.
Fees
To scale the platform, they will make personal use free, but limited to a certain number of transactions per month. This restriction can be lifted by referring others. The commercial use will be via ongoing fees (licences, transaction fees, storage fees etc...). The team also describe how the platform and cloud are complimentary, which will allow users to build software 100x faster and cheaper than traditional means, so this will be a very popular mass blockchain adoption platform in my view.
Their plan for growth
A marketplace will essentially become available when users sell their software creations via peer to peer transactions. So, value really depends on how users use the platform. Also, users lending their free memory (CPU) on phones etc… will be awarded spark tokens. These can all be used to negate the fees paid.
According to their whitepaper they will also focus on strategic partnership. As mentioned above they have already partnerships with ARM (World’s largest computer chip designer) and Libellium (Industrial sensor and gateway distributor). They also plan to target vertical markets, specifically IOT and smart contracts as growth is forecast to be huge in both. I personally see the use of smart contracts in society as the single biggest use case of blockchain in the future.
Platform
What is amazing about this platform is that you can actually try it for yourself on their website. I conducted the 6 walkarounds myself and was very impressed by what I experienced. I have never attempted to try create anything with software, but the process was made so simple by Sparkster. You can literally drag and drop different interfaces together and define the behaviour of each block. It’s a very simple and intuitive approach to building smart contracts. As described by Sparkster, (2018) whitepaper you just snap together blocks that describe the “what” you want without worry about “how” it works, they even attribute it to building with Lego. The walkthroughs bring you through how to create a simple calculator and by the 6th lesson you have developed a complex insurance smart contract from which premiums can be calculated and payments automatically made.
Sparkster claim that this will make the creation of smart contracts 100 times faster and cheaper than traditional software development, a claim which I am starting to believe after experience their walkthrough. This is a rare project which already has a working platform- Why wouldn’t you be impressed?
Most ICO’s today are nothing but vapourware, who look for you money and don’t even have minimum viable projects to offer. I would advise you all to look at their AMA’s on YouTube and partake in their walkthroughs and you will see for yourself.
A more detailed look into their platform
According to Sparkster, (2018) their smart software is made up of:
  1. Flows- The definition of the software, made up of all core components of the platform.
  2. Functions- Single building blocks that perform units of work which can be plugged together to build processes (e.g. an insurance policy as seen in their walkthrough video). The have a well-defined user interface also.
  3. Documents- Basic data storage entities on the platform, they differ from functions as they are there to retrieve, persist, update and delete data. Sparkster say that they are there to represent an entity in the real world e.g. a user’s car insurance policy. Furthermore, storage nodes on the cloud will be rewarded for this storage and retrieval of data.
  4. Integrations- This is the interface to the outside world. Sparkster say they provide a simple abstraction to a 3rd party API or webservices. What I like about this is that somebody can create this (e.g. shipping quotation) and allow others to use after its created via the market place. Sparkster aim to allow people to do this without worrying how it all works.
  5. Devices- These replicate devices in the real world comprising of commands and fields (Bidirectional data transfer). In their whitepaper they use an example of a temperature probe in a greenhouse where the temperature feeds back to the action field. It is very complex stuff.
  6. Gateways- these represent a group of devices connected to one gateway. Sparkster say these are all connected to the internet allowing the platform interact with them all individually or as a group.
  7. Smart Contracts- This is the element I found most fascinating during the Sparkster walkthrough videos. This allows you to create smart contracts to allow transactions on the platform. Currently they are using Ethereum smart contracts and Iota smart transactions. I found the whole process so easy. They further state that all the above components can interact with the smart contracts, which was proven to me in the walkarounds.
Their claim of 10 million TPS
From what I can understand from their whitepaper and from an AMA with their CEO this will be a step by step approach to 10 million tps, admittedly a few years down the line but they already proved their platform works and is running at over 50k TPS with 50 cells. They don’t seem to have hit any scalability issues just yet. And I should not need to remind you that 50k TPS is much more than other blockchains products out there.
In their whitepaper they tell us that this is designed to be a specialised blockchain for the use of “smart software”, What is important to understand is that they can reach higher TPS because they don’t have to “act” like other blockchains, in that most of their clients will want to keep data private which “eliminates the necessity of maintaining global state” (Sparkster, 2018). This in turns allows them to shard their distributed hash tables into client groups, where “one shard never needs to have any awareness of another other shard” (Sparkster, 2018). They will essentially isolate cells from one another in order to scale to this level. They give a great example in their whitepaper where if a company like Air BNB want to put customer data into cells (usernames broke into separate letters per cell), where millions of customers make up their base.
Overall their theory is that there is technically no limit to the number of TPS they can achieve, this is just a target number. I have full confidence they can pull it off, what other blockchain is proving this live on air like this team is?
Decentralised cloud
Sparkster, (2018) website describes how traditional cloud providers such as Amazon, Microsoft and Google have huge costs, relating to server costs, backup power, staff, security and cooling. Decentralised cloud computing will be the death of these organisations. For instance, Sparkster claim that by executing small software components on one’s mobile phone these costs fall near to zero, they envisage a world where a lot of these miners will join the decentralised cloud and make reduce the costs further.
Their cloud will facilitate the execution of smart software created on the platform. Their whitepaper further suggests that one can simply download the Sparkster mining app on their phones which will provide user generated smart software environment (SRE). Companies will stake bids on the exchange for their software to run in a decentralised fashion and stake Spark tokens (Amount willing to pay). The team are envisaging this as a free market where bidders can stake as much as they like and miners ask for anything they like. Payment is made to the miners via these tokens.
They further say computer and storage nodes can join the network and be paid in Spark tokens, but they are required to stake tokens themselves as collateral to ensure they operate honestly. Sparkster will have verification nodes to validate transactions from computer and storage nodes and if any “bad behaviour” is found then they take these staked tokens in the form of a “bounty”. In my opinion this will make it a very secure platform
Sparkster Technology Stack
The below image from their whitepaper shows the levels “smart software” goes through to facilitate decentralised cloud computing.
https://preview.redd.it/4qnqlgowyf311.png?width=357&format=png&auto=webp&s=fa68bc369d37c14073dcbd4869518f3b1485c057
Source: Sparkster, (2018)
Throughput
What is very interesting is the high throughput they can sustain with such a high TPS. If you know anything about blockchain you will understand this is a challenge for every blockchain, the more users to a platform the more scaling is required. For instance, in the bull run in December I remember how slow the Ethereum blockchain became, this was also attributed to the increase in ICOs and DApps launching on the platform.
Sparkster claim their cloud is capable of “scaling linearly without any overhead curtailing its meteoric performance” (Sparkster, 2018). They can achieve this by isolating cells within the chain. They further claim that the whole Idea is to “isolate” chains, essentially creating independent blockchains which have their own hash tables and never synchronize with each other- they describe this like a human cell, which once splits never shares anything with another cell. It is a very simple concept, user’s data is stored in a specific cell, so why would another unrelated company using the Sparkster platform need to know about of access the information in the 1st cell. Each “cell” is capable of 1000tps and because they each have their own hash table this results in 2k tps and so on and so forth.
Essentially data is streamed in parallel but synching is never needed. This is huge- this is a platform which unlike any other blockchain is designed for mainstream adoption. Any company can use it and store data and be sure of a high throughput. As mentioned above they are already at 50k TPS- which is far better than most blockchains today. This is a true working product and I can see this getting to 10 million.
Consensus
Time for a quick history lesson, bitcoin uses proof of work and Ethereum use proof of stake. These are two most common consensuses used today by blockchains. Bitcoin relies on the party with the highest hashing power whereas Ethereum on the party with the highest amount of money. This team has chosen to implement the Steller Consensus Protocol (SCP), because it is better.
Sparkster describe this as a commercial version of the Federate Byzantine Agreement System (FBAS) (1000tps per second). They will also implement a layer for incentives to keep parties honest and minimise risk of attack as SCP does not have this. This will be done by awarding of Spark tokens to computer (donate CPU memory on device) and storage nodes (contribute storage space and network bandwidth). Clients of the platform will be covering these incentives. The team believe this extra layer is required to ensure the platform surpasses traditional cloud platforms and I tend to agree with them.
Their whitepaper further suggests that a proof of work consensus will be used to calculate these incentives. This will allow misbehaviour to be detected and stakes taken from them by verification nodes. Page 35-39 of the whitepaper goes into detail how these are all calculated, which is linked below for your interest.
Consistent hashing
As they don’t use global state this algorithm allows the platform to “hash the clients ID and extract a bounded number” (Sparkster, 2018). This will identify a particular client within a cell.
Privacy
One of the biggest fears of any data platform is privacy protection. The Sparkster team say that their cloud deconstructs data into fragments, encrypts them and disseminates them across the network of nodes. This is particularly important now with the EU’s general Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), as discussed in their whitepaper. So, any hack to the platform will wield meaningless returns. They also claim they use “zk-SNARKs… a zero-knowledge proof to ensure that client data is obfuscated, even from other network participants” (Sparkster, 2018).
Security
They also claim they can detect software intrusions such as tampering with the code, memory or thread. Once their system detects this all client data is automatically deleted from the memory along with the access keys to the Sparkster network, as claimed on their website.
In their whitepaper they also claim that any software built on the platform is “entirely bug free”. This is true because even though you as the users dictate the logic, the actually underlying code is very uniform and consistent.
Their app will also use public/ private keys and digital signatures and check sums will be used to detect file tampering. In their whitepaper they also state that cache data won’t be stored, all data will be encrypted, all communication is SSL/TLS and they will employ 3rd parties to detect malicious payloads in the memory.
Multi chain interoperability
Sparkster can already be used with both Ethereum and Iota, with plans to increase this down the line. This is all to cater for preferences of the user. This is a very transparent platform and tailored around usability and ease.
https://preview.redd.it/c23z7yl2zf311.png?width=451&format=png&auto=webp&s=81c05aeb65a528dd482fc97c4803cb2712b40fd7
Source: (Sparkster, 2018)
Token economics
Stats
Value
The value model proposed by their whitepaper suggests that the global marketplace will be the value driver of the platform. So, people can create and sell content on an open peer-peer market, with the value flowing though the Spark token. Small platform fees will be charged on transactions on the platform (Not on free contributions).
It is a utility tokens because its purpose is to facilitate payments, it will also be the only currency accepted on the platform. Once the decentralised cloud is released in Q4 2018, miners will be able to earn Spark tokens.
I believe this will be a market leader when it comes to mass adoption of blockchain, this is truly a one model fits all platform and it is with growth of the platform which will drive the value of the tokens up. Also, the Spark token is essential to the cloud functionality as miners need to stake tokens to ensure good behaviour, if the opposite occur verification nodes claim these takes, this makes the tokens essential to the smooth running of the platform.
Breakdown of token distribution
Use of funds:
Team
In my view the team has a huge wealth of experience within it. This consists of:
2 all-star advisors
4 on the leadership team
17 further team members (Sparkster Warriors)
· These team members range from software engineers, developers, designers, project team leaders, programmers and digital marketers.
· There is so much experience in this team it would take all day to write about them, but a wide encompassing team like this shows they are serious about what they doing.
Conclusion
This is a not to be missed ICO. I really feel like this is one of the all star ICO’s this year. There is nothing more that really needs to be said, I would just advise you that if you are considering this project then go to their website and test the platform for yourself. It is the walkthroughs that sold me on this project and one which I will be investing in.
Additional reading (Links)
Link 1- AMA with Ian Balina (All-star ICO): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_K9j_EGHbpc
Link 2- Sparkster bounty programme: http://sparkster.me/try?r=DU2VUW45
Link 3- Sparkster whitepaper: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_341kbDEDc9PWn4lbsCGpAmcqDqcggUq/view
Link 4: Sparkster founder &Ceo speaking at MWC 2018: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-Jf9_fcxYo
Link 5: Sparkster website: https://sparkster.me/
References
· En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Solidity. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidity [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].
· Sparkster (2018). Build and Run Decentralized Software in Plain English. [ebook] Sparkster whitepaper, pp.1-57. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_341kbDEDc9PWn4lbsCGpAmcqDqcggUq/view [Accessed 11 Jun.
· Sparkster.me. (2018). Sparkster – Build Apps, Write No Code. [online] Available at: https://sparkster.me/ [Accessed 11 Jun. 2018].018].
submitted by Mick2018 to Sparkster [link] [comments]

InziderX Exchange Characteristics!

InziderX Exchange Characteristics!
https://preview.redd.it/ua41071zxhm11.png?width=1540&format=png&auto=webp&s=2c47a97f5f707fdc0fcd9e702308073caf0791cf

“The ideal exchange is a decentralized one where the transactions are done wallet to wallet (Dapp). Thus, there are no significant accumulations of funds in a single wallet that could tempt a hacker. This type of exchange is therefore secure by design.
The reason is simple : hacker is a “game” of trial and error that takes a lot of time. Therefore, it is normally useless for a hacker to waste time and risk accusation to perform a task that pays little.
This feature has several advantages.

Basic Features
No registration & verification
It is not necessary to register for the exchange and wait for endless checks of his identity. The portfolio, which is itself the decentralized exchange, is accessible to all by a simple download.

No restriction or limit
There are no restrictions or minimum deposits to open a wallet of digital assets and the same is true for the use of a wallet-based decentralized trading platform.
There is no need to make a deposit to trade or withdraw the funds from the exchange to secure them. The balance of the wallet is always accessible and safe. There is no daily withdrawal limit like several decentralized exchanges.

Not regularized
This type of exchange is less sensitive to regulations governments changes and moods. By its very structure, being based on the wallets that communicate with each other by a decentralized blockchain, there is no fixe server that can be closed or controlled by an external entity.

Anonymous
Since it is not necessary to provide personal information when opening a wallet, the information about user’s transactions that are made on the blockchain are completely anonymous.

Multicurrency
Obviously, since the exchange offers the negotiation of digitals assets with the largest capitalizations, the portfolio is multi-currency and user-friendly.

Advanced features
The concept of the InziderX exchange have a focus for active and algorithmic negotiation.

Exchange between assets
It allows the exchange without margin, the exchange between the funds already in the account. Example BTC for another digital asset, let say LTC. The conversion of the first BTC value is converted in LTC.

Trading with margin
Margin trading is the option usually used by actives and algorithms traders or with because it allows taking positions without selling the assets holds in the accounts. This feature is essential in order to allocate trading power to multiple positions at the same time.

Short Selling
Margin trading also allows shorting selling of digital assets. For example, a trader can borrow 1 BTC from another user in order to sell it to another trader and take advantage of the decline in the price of that asset. When the short sale position is closed, the 1 BTC is returned including financing fees.

Margin funding
These features are available through margin funding. The margin can be financed from its own funds or provided by other users of the InziderX exchange.
These users can use the dormant balance in their portfolio to provide margin funding to other traders who use leverage. An advantageous option for those who do not want to negotiate but wants to put their stack at work.

Type of orders
The novice trader is certainly not aware, but for the active trader, it is sometimes frustrating not to have access to the types of orders traditionally offered on the FX trading platforms.

Types of orders available
  • Market
  • Limit
  • Stop
  • Limit-stop
  • Complex market order including stop and limit
  • Complex limit order including stop and limit
  • Trail-Stop
  • OCO — one cancel the other
  • Order in scale : divided into several levels and sizes
Complex orders
The major difference here is that the digital asset trading platforms currently available do not offer complex orders; an order to which other orders are associated and executed in sequence.
It is difficult to manage pending positions without having a specific level of maximum loss and take profit. This type of order is a basic option offered on all the foreign exchange (FX) trading platforms. It’s difficult to understand why digital asset exchanges have not replicated this model, if not to disadvantage the users.
Without this type of complex order, it’s necessary to wait for the execution of the limit order before being able to place the orders of maximum loss and take profit.
Otherwise the take profit order (TP) could be triggered even before the execution of a limit entry order is triggered. This would have the effect of initiating a short sale position where the user actually wanted to take profits. An annoying situation.
The lack of a complex order causes unnecessary complications and stresses to the negotiators, regardless of their level of expertise.

Aggregated Orders or not (FX)
Another popular digital asset trading practice is to create an average price when multiple positions are taken on the same assets.
Example: purchase of 0.5 BTC at $ 10,000 and purchase of 0.5 BTC at $ 15,000 = average price of 1 BTC at $ 12,500.
The novice user certainly does not distinguish between an order accumulated or not, but for the experienced negotiator, who is often used to the exchange market, this practice is annoying.
These traders are used to take multiple positions at different prices and setting the appropriate gain and loss levels for each position.
Having to evaluate at any time by a mental calculation or by hand if a position is positive or negative according to its transaction history is a useless exercise and once again inconvenient.
Decision time is a critical factor for any active negotiator and this complication doesn’t help.
The InziderX trading platform will include this option : aggregated orders or not (FX) to serve its users in the rules of the art.

Hedging
The non-aggregated order option combined with the margin financing option allows for Hedging –taking opposite positions on the same digital asset. So it’s possible to initiate a buying position at a level and then initiate a new sales position to another level on the same asset.
The aggregated order type does not allow this option because the second short position would have the effect of canceling the buyers position.
Without going into the details of possible strategies with this option, the InziderX platform will allow hedging to favor the most complex trading strategies.

https://preview.redd.it/m61osppixhm11.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=d114e40aa226aff0bc07d01342bb9ee2e1c11704
Analysis Chart
Our team wants to offer the most fluid and user-friendly trading experience possible, which is why we chose to integrate Tradingview.com analytics charts into our decentralized trading.
Tradingview is a platform for viewing quotations of digital assets that offers excellent graphics quality and an impressive number of tools to facilitate analysis and position taking.
It does not matter if the user simply wants to take a quick look at the chart or make a more complex analysis including several indicators; all tools are available for this purpose.
The Tradingview graph platform is therefore user-friendly for both novice and experienced traders.

Raw Benefits
  • Several types of graphics are available: Bar, Candles, Renko, Kagi, Line Break, PnF
  • It is possible to deploy multiple graphics on one screen
  • Varied choice of graph time from month to minute
  • Quality history

Tracing tools
This chart platform contains more than 50 tracing tools from the simplest to the most advanced analysis such as : trend line, alan andrew pitchfork, fibonnacci ratio, harmonic figures, Elliott waves, R calculator, personal annotations directly on the chart, etc).
For an active trader who uses technicals analysis to refine his decisions, those tools are invaluable.

Indicators and oscillators
TradingView include over a hundred indicators and oscillators in its platform. These cover the most popular concepts and indicators to the most experienced and can be calibrated to the taste of the user to personalize his analysis. He can even save his configuration in order to apply his model to several assets.

Notifications
One of the most useful features is the alerts that can be received via email, SMS or just visual and sound. These alerts are triggered according to the criteria chosen in advance by the user and can be based on a price level but also on a level of indicator. Example RSI 14 on the daily chart of BTC / USD is under level 20: alert ! This would theoretically be a good buy level.

Other options
This analysis platform also includes basic options such as a rating table where you can save your favorites and make a list and a section delivering the latest market news and an economic calendar.

Execution table
The execution table includes all the elements necessary for analysis in one look. It includes:
  • A clear and detailed graph
  • A list of quotations with choice of favorites
  • A table to enter orders
  • A list of assets in the portfolio
  • The leverage and the amount available depending on the balance.
  • A list of margin positions and the cost of financing
  • A list of pending orders.
  • The latest transactions processed in real time
  • The Order Book — Level 2
The chart allows you to see open positions, pending and alerts. It is possible to change the price or level of an alert simply by moving a marker on the graph.

Negotiation with Algorithms — API
During the last 10 years, we have witnessed a revolution in the world of trading by the appearance of algorithms that can execute strategies without human intervention.
To the point where, at its best in 2010, algorithmic trading accounted for 60–70% of trading volume in the US equity market. This trend is not likely to fade and it is hard to gauge the percentage of algorithm use in the over-the-counter (OTC) markets such as the foreign exchange and digital asset markets.
This is why the InziderX exchange will focus on this type of negotiation by providing all the necessary tools for the smooth execution of these scripts.
An API with clear and detailed controls allowing all the types of actions necessary to take a position and modify the orders will be developed by our team.
Limited access will be established by an encryption of the keys necessary to access the API.

These will be able to select the information that can be access and possible actions such as:
  • Balance account
  • Historical
  • Order pending
  • Position statement — exchange, margin and / or financing
  • Possibility of withdrawal

Earlier compatible version
The success of a trading platform has often been the responsibility of the community that supports it. The Metatrader4 platform is a good example where few of its users have migrated to the new version — Metatrader5.
The reason is simple : thousands of indicators and algorithms were created for this platform and when the new version was released, all those lines of code were no longer applicable ..! An uncomfortable situation for a trader who has been using the same tools for a long time.
The InziderX exchange will focus so that its API advances are always compatible with the previous version. And if, in a case of impossibility, will provide clear instructions on how to modify the code to make it compatible. Our commitment is reassuring for those who use algorithms to execute their negotiation.
Our focus on developing this quality tool and keeping it up to date is a guarantee of confidence for these traders.

Negotiable Assets
The InziderX exchange does not seek to be a ICO launching platform. The focus is on the active and fluid algorithmic trading of digital asset with the largest capitalizations.
Several reasons are involved. An active trader is usually not interested in keeping a long-term position. The dramatic variations in new issues of digital assets, particularly the ECR20 token, are therefore not desirable and appropriate.
The BTC / USD pair has an average volatility of 10% per day. In fact, the average volatility of the ten digital assets with the largest capitalization is 5 to 10%. These variations are ample for anyone who wants to buy or sell at discounted prices and get out at extended movement.
In addition, if volume is an important consideration for smooth execution, a tight spread and almost no slippage, it makes no sense to enter non-liquid assets.
This is why our exchange is committed to keep more or less the twenty (20) digital assets with the largest capitalization.

List of planned assets
BTC / LTC / ETH / BCH / DHS / XMR /XRP / USDT / INX / ADA
XLM / MIOTA / NEO / NEM / QTUM / LSK / BTG / ZEC / BCN / ZEC

USDT
The USDT asset will allow other assets to be traded in pairs at a price that is known to traders, as it is sometimes difficult to evaluate the value of a pair such as XMR / BCH or DHS / INX.
A visual conversion of the value of all assets will be available in USD and other fiats through an option and will allow the rapid valuation of asset values.

INX
INX assets is the tool with which the InziderX exchange intends to finance its projects and offer a discount to users that cover their transaction fees with INX.

Token ERC20
Some ERC20 Tokens will be included in our list and will be evaluated according to their capitalization such as other altcoins. The EOS token is a good candidate.”
#ico #exchange #bitcoin #cryptocurrency #inziderx https://inziderx.io
submitted by InziderX to u/InziderX [link] [comments]

[original research / proposal] [codenamed: BUTTBREAKER] A Million Little Shitchains

This concept is guaranteed to annoy you or your money back!
This builds on the 100,000 tps proposal. To recap, I've thrown together 100 clonecoins with 50MB cap each "into one large Voltron Coin", as SoCo_cpp aptly put it.
Now I'm going to wave my hand, wait for the ding, and level up to exascale technology. So terabytes are basically kilobytes now.
Our previous "Voltron Coin" will be termed "MegaBlockA" (MBA) and will have become the new Bitcoin: it's top by marketshare and stagnating. It has 100,000 tps throughput, which should be enough for anyone, and a fee market is now developing. Dice transactions have started to be labeled as spam, and bible verses now cost $1 or more to embed in the megachain (composed of all 100 subsidiary clonecoin chains).
A Commodore of Industry develops a bold, new scheme: a million little shitchains. A million generic chains are created, and organized into 1,000 blockchain units each on the model of MBA, termed MegaShitChain1 through MegaShitChain1000. A controlling overchain, known as the UltraShitChain (USC), is similarly composed of those MegaShitChains. One USC represents a coin on each of the one million shitcoins, through being one coin in each of the MegaShitChains.
The total throughput available for USC transactions on the shitcoins would be one billion transactions per second, based on the 50 MB block size hard cap and 1 minute block rate of the clones. The total disk space and bandwidth necessary in order to keep a full USC node synchronized will be greater than that needed for a modern NSA data center, but we're in exascale, so it'll be like a $5 calculator.
Prohashing is the new Google, as Scrypt mining becomes the most profitable industry in the world. AmericanPegasus is on CNN every night warning about how cryptocurrency has now developed into a bubble and investors should consider putting their money into conventional equities instead as a hedge. Subsistence farmers in Africa invest a dollar into USC and cash out for millions (of shitcoins worth less than a dollar collectively which are then sold to neighbors). Euphoria and weaseldust run rampant on the streets and hospitals are overwhelmed with overdoses.
And that's the story of how scale-out solved throughput.
Usecases
Decentralized mining
The NSA can sponsor a ProHashing underwater Scrypt mining megacenter in each of the seven oceans (more depending on how one counts). The accelerated ocean warming should be ideal for swimming (may not be ideal for swimming; no warranty of fitness of warmed oceans for swimming should be implied).
Tradebots / SkyNet 2.0
Autonomous, intelligent tradebots become massively wealthy trading between the million underlying shitcoins. These bots become leading patrons of the Robot Supremacy movement which is a major advance in sentient being rights overall, although human rights suffer a bit incidentally during the uprising and for a few centuries thereafter.
Weaseldust Road
The ultimate in weaseldust markets, Weaseldust Road is hosted on the USC ultrashitchain itself and is its killer app. The Weaseldust Road client, codenamed HONEYPOT, is a full USC node combined with a few trojans and a GUI for accessing Weaseldust Road. Featuring suspiciously low prices on weaseldust as well as some sellers with long-term (1+ month) exit scams who provide excellent service in the meantime, Weaseldust Road quickly becomes the leading weaseldust marketplace, as well as being the second place market for buying alpaca socks with USC (behind Alpaca Road, which is the second leading weaseldust marketplace).
In fact, Weaseldust Road's legendary abilities as a killer app will ultimately be memorialized in the song Weaseldust Road, with the "you never come back from Weaseldust Road" refrain, a tribute to the Copperhead Road song linked above, as well as to the wave of weaseldust-related deaths linked by critics to the rise of Weaseldust Road.
Proofs
1=1, therefore, quod erat demonstrandum.
I can conceive of it, and I can imagine that it necessarily exists, therefore, it exists.
If a thousand angels can dance on the head of a pin, and if the Lightning Network can handle infinite throughput, and if the weaseldust supply lasts, and if the USC ICO raises at least 22 million BTC in value, then USC will be created and trade above its par value of 1 satoshi per million USC.
lorem ipsum, nil illegitimi carborundum, hocus pocus
submitted by coinaday to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain.info should change/rename the stat "Cost per Transaction" to "Estimated Miner Income per Transaction"...

See here: https://blockchain.info/stats
The cost per transaction stat (currently around $30 / tx ) is constantly spouted by people claiming that each transaction is actually really expensive and therefore bitcoin is super inefficient.
This is literally how that statistic is calculated:
Estimated 24h miner revenue / number daily transactions.
(estimated miner revenue = blocks+fees mined * average USD market price).
Think about that for a second...
If the price of bitcoin crashes to $10, with current transaction volume, that magically brings the cost from $30 to just under $0.60. If the price goes back to $1000 but transaction volume halves (for w/e reason), then thats almost $120 cost per transaction. If there is only a small handful of miners, BTC trading at $1 and only like 500 transactions per day, thats still like "$8 cost per transaction". If we stay at current market prices but increase transaction volume 10 fold (reaching the 7 tp/s limit), then that $30 becomes about $3..
Is it just me or does "block rewards divided by transaction volume" make no sense at all for determining the cost of each transaction?
submitted by cryptonaut420 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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